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زبان ماشین و اسمبلی آموزشکده فنی پسران دورود - با اسمبلی 2

با اسمبلی 2

 

نوشته شده توسط:علی مرادیان

با سلام ،

چند پستی رو با عنوان "با اسمبلی" در خدمتتون هستم، در این پستها خلاصه ای از زبان اسمبلی رو خدمتتون ارائه می کنم که اگه صبور و پیگیر باشید مطمئنا ضرر نمی کنید، امیدوارم استفاده کنید و راضی باشید.

 

"با اسمبلی 2"

 

 

ثبات پرچم

هر یک از بیتهای این ثبات، در مواقع خاصی مقدار می گیرند. بعنوان مثال، این ثبات دارای بیتی به نام بیت 0 می باشد که در صورت 0 شدن نتیجه محاسبات، مقدار آن بیت، چک می شود.

ضمنا دارای بیتی به نام OverFlow (سرریز) می باشد که در صورت سرریز شدن محاسبات، مقدار این بیت 1 می شود.

محتویات این بیتها، توسط زبان ماشین قابل تغییر هستند و توسط اکثر دستورات زبان اسمبلی، محتویات این بیتها تغییر می کند.

شکل کلی این ثبات به صورت زیر است:

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

R

R

R

R

OF

DF

IF

TF

SF

ZF

U

AF

U

PF

U

U

 

R = Rexrved                                    U = Undefined

OF = Overflow                                  ZF = Zero Flag

DF = Direction Flag                            SF = Sign Flag

IF = Interrupt Flag               AF = Auxiliary Carry Flag

TF = Trap Flag                               PF = Parity Flag

CF = Carry Flag

 

Carry Flag (بیت انتقال):

معمولا، از محاسبات تاثیر می پذیرد. برای اعمال جمع و تفریق ازاین بیت، برای عدد انتقال (رقم نقلی) استفاده می گردد. در اعمالی مانند Shift دادن بیتها، آخرین بیت Shift داده شده، در این بیت قرار می گیرد.

Parity Flag:

از این بیت، معمولا برای اشکال زدایی در انتقال اطلاعات استفاده می شود. به عبارت دیگر، برای کنترل صحت اطلاعات به کار میرود.

Auxiliary Carry Flag:

 از این بیت، به عنوان بیت جانشین بیت Carry استفاده می شود.

Zero Flag:

 در صورتی که نتیجه عمل محاسباتی 0 شده باشد، مقدار این بیت، 1 می شود. در غیر این صورت 0 خواهد بود.

Sign Flag: حدس بزنید کارش چیه؟

Trap Flag:

برای اجرای دستور به دستور برنامه، از این بیت استفاده می وشد. اگر این بیت، 1 باشد، برنامه به صورت دستور به دستور اجرا می گردد.

Interrupt Flag:

با استفاده از این بیت، می توانیم کاری کنیم که وقفه ها، فعال یا غیر فعال گردند.

IF=0  à   وقفه ها غیر فعال     ,     IF=1   à     وقفه ها فعال

Direct Flag:

 از این بیت، معمولا برای اعمال رشته ای استفاده می شود. جهت مقایسه یا انتقال رشته ها را نیز مشخص می کند.

DF=1   à     Right to Left    ,     DF=0 à      Left to Right

Overflow:

در صورتی که عمل محاسباتی دارای سرریز باشد، مقدار این بیت، 1 در غیر این صورت 0 خواهد بود.

 

 

ثبات SP (Stack Pointer)

این ثبات، آدرس Top پشته را بر می گرداند و در خود، ذخیره می کند.

ثبات BP (Base Pointer)

از این ثبات، بعنوان یک ثبات پایه، (کار با Stack) استفاده می شود.

 

وقفه Interrupt

وقفه ها، برنامه های آماده شده ای هستند که با انتقال دادن مقادیری (عمل انتقال، توسط ثبات انجام می شود) با آنها، می توانیم کارهای بخصوصی را انجام دهیم. ضمنا مقادیر بازگشتی توسط وقفه ها نیز توسط ثباتها، باز می گردد. یکی از راههای ارتباط بین برنامه نویس و وقفه ها، ثباتها می باشند.

وقفه ها در ابتدای راه اندازی کامپیوتر، در جافظه اصلی مقیم می شوند و با ایجاد یک Signal (علامت) خاص، به اجرا در می آیند هم چنین برنامه نویس می تواند از وقفه ها، با اجرای دستوراتی خاص استفاده کند. مثلا با فشردن کلید Print Screen وقفه ایجاد می گردد که محتویات صفحه نمایش به چاپگر منتقل می شود. و یا با فشردن کلیدهای Ctrl+Alt+Del کامپیوتر Reset می شود.

 

به طور کلی وقفه ها به دو گروه تقسیم می شوند :

1- سخت افزاری(داخلی و خارجی)

2- نرم افزاری(سیستم و کاربر) که سیستمی خودش به دو دسته بایوس و داس تقسیم میشه.

 

وقفه های نرم افزاری:

وقفه هایی اند که در موقع  فراخوانی یک برنامه زبان ماشین اجرا می گردند.

وقفه های سخت افزاری:

وقفه هایی اند که در موقع فراخوانی آنها، یک عمل سخت افزاری انجام می شود. (مانند وقفه Timer)

 

 



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